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Ghost in the Shell (jap. 攻殻機動隊, Kōkaku Kidōtai) ist ein Manga von Masamune Shirow von , der mehrfach als Anime umgesetzt wurde. Die Umsetzung. Verpackt in einer Biokapsel, der Shell, stecken in jedem Cyborg menschliche Gehirnzellen mit dem Geist (Ghost), der die Identität und Persönlichkeit enthält. bikerags.co - Kaufen Sie Ghost in the Shell - The Movie - Mediabook günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen. bikerags.co - Compra Ghost in the Shell im FuturePak a un gran precio, con posibilidad de envío gratis. Ver opiniones y detalles sobre la gran selección de. In Ghost of Tsushima stürzen wir uns als Samurai ins mittelalterliche Japan, doch wie sah das Land damals aus? Gab es die.

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bikerags.co - Compra Ghost in the Shell im FuturePak a un gran precio, con posibilidad de envío gratis. Ver opiniones y detalles sobre la gran selección de. bikerags.co - Kaufen Sie Ghost in the Shell - The Movie - Mediabook günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen. Am Donnerstag erscheint auf Netflix mit Ghost in the Shell: SAC_ eine weitere Umsetzung des Mangas. Den Fans gefällt der neue Look.

In this post-cyberpunk iteration of a possible future, computer technology has advanced to the point that many members of the public possess cyberbrains, technology that allows them to interface their biological brain with various networks.

The level of cyberization varies from simple minimal interfaces to almost complete replacement of the brain with cybernetic parts, in cases of severe trauma.

This can also be combined with various levels of prostheses , with a fully prosthetic body enabling a person to become a cyborg.

The main character of Ghost in the Shell , Major Motoko Kusanagi , is such a cyborg, having had a terrible accident befall her as a child that ultimately required her to use a full-body prosthesis to house her cyberbrain.

This high level of cyberization, however, opens the brain up to attacks from highly skilled hackers, with the most dangerous being those who will hack a person to bend to their whims.

Two animated films based on the original manga have been released, both directed by Mamoru Oshii and animated by Production I.

Ghost in the Shell was released in and follows the "Puppet Master" storyline from the manga. It was re-released in as Ghost in the Shell 2.

On September 5, , it was revealed by Production I. The film premiered on June 20, , in Japanese theaters. In , DreamWorks and producer Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to a live-action film adaptation of the original Ghost in the Shell manga.

Filming wrapped in June In , Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex premiered on Animax , presenting a new telling of Ghost in the Shell independent from the original manga, focusing on Section 9's investigation of the Laughing Man hacker.

Kodansha and Production I. G on the project. It was later revealed that Ilya Kuvshinov will handle character designs. In addition to the anime, a series of published books, two separate manga adaptations, and several video games for consoles and mobile phones have been released for Stand Alone Complex.

In , a new iteration of the series titled Ghost in the Shell: Arise premiered, taking an original look at the Ghost in the Shell world, set before the original manga.

An additional fifth OVA titled Pyrophoric Cult , originally premiering in the Alternative Architecture broadcast as two original episodes, was released on August 26, The film is a continuation to the plot of the Pyrophoric Cult episode of Arise , and ties up loose ends from that arc.

A manga adaptation was serialized in Kodansha's Young Magazine , which started on March 13 and ended on August 26, The video game's soundtrack Megatech Body features various electronica artists.

Several video games were also developed to tie into the Stand Alone Complex television series, in addition to a first-person shooter by Nexon and Neople titled Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - First Assault Online , [35] released in Ghost in the Shell influenced a number of prominent filmmakers.

The Wachowskis , creators of The Matrix and its sequels, showed it to producer Joel Silver , saying, "We wanna do that for real.

Artificial Intelligence , and Jonathan Mostow 's Surrogates. Bungie 's third-person action game Oni draws substantial inspiration from Ghost in the Shell 's setting and characters.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the media franchise in general. For specific works and entries in that franchise, see Ghost in the Shell disambiguation.

Logo used in the film adaptation of the series. Main article: Ghost in the Shell manga. Main article: Ghost in the Shell film. Young Magazine Pirate Edition, Retrieved Anime News Network.

Retrieved November 9, Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 10 July The Verge. Retrieved March 3, April 14, Hero Complex.

Retrieved April 14, The Guardian. BBC News. April 19, HK Magazine. South China Morning Post. The modern noun does, however, retain a wider field of application, extending on one hand to "soul", "spirit", " vital principle ", " mind ", or " psyche ", the seat of feeling, thought, and moral judgement; on the other hand used figuratively of any shadowy outline, or fuzzy or unsubstantial image; in optics, photography, and cinematography especially, a flare, secondary image, or spurious signal.

Wraith is a Scots word for ghost , spectre , or apparition. It appeared in Scottish Romanticist literature, and acquired the more general or figurative sense of portent or omen.

In 18th- to 19th-century Scottish literature, it also applied to aquatic spirits. The word has no commonly accepted etymology; the OED notes "of obscure origin" only.

A revenant is a deceased person returning from the dead to haunt the living, either as a disembodied ghost or alternatively as an animated " undead " corpse.

Also related is the concept of a fetch , the visible ghost or spirit of a person yet alive. A notion of the transcendent , supernatural , or numinous , usually involving entities like ghosts, demons , or deities , is a cultural universal.

Some people believe the ghost or spirit never leaves Earth until there is no-one left to remember the one who died. In many cultures, malignant, restless ghosts are distinguished from the more benign spirits involved in ancestor worship.

Ancestor worship typically involves rites intended to prevent revenants , vengeful spirits of the dead, imagined as starving and envious of the living.

Strategies for preventing revenants may either include sacrifice , i. Magical banishment of the dead is present in many of the world's burial customs.

The bodies found in many tumuli kurgan had been ritually bound before burial, [33] and the custom of binding the dead persists, for example, in rural Anatolia.

Nineteenth-century anthropologist James Frazer stated in his classic work The Golden Bough that souls were seen as the creature within that animated the body.

Although the human soul was sometimes symbolically or literally depicted in ancient cultures as a bird or other animal, it appears to have been widely held that the soul was an exact reproduction of the body in every feature, even down to clothing the person wore.

This is depicted in artwork from various ancient cultures, including such works as the Egyptian Book of the Dead , which shows deceased people in the afterlife appearing much as they did before death, including the style of dress.

While deceased ancestors are universally regarded as venerable, and often believed to have a continued presence in some form of afterlife , the spirit of a deceased person that persists in the material world a ghost is regarded as an unnatural or undesirable state of affairs and the idea of ghosts or revenants is associated with a reaction of fear.

This is universally the case in pre-modern folk cultures, but fear of ghosts also remains an integral aspect of the modern ghost story , Gothic horror , and other horror fiction dealing with the supernatural.

Another widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material.

Anthropologists link this idea to early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person the person's spirit , most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist.

In the Bible , God is depicted as synthesising Adam , as a living soul, from the dust of the Earth and the breath of God.

In many traditional accounts, ghosts were often thought to be deceased people looking for vengeance vengeful ghosts , or imprisoned on earth for bad things they did during life.

The appearance of a ghost has often been regarded as an omen or portent of death. Seeing one's own ghostly double or " fetch " is a related omen of death.

White ladies were reported to appear in many rural areas, and supposed to have died tragically or suffered trauma in life.

White Lady legends are found around the world. Common to many of them is the theme of losing a child or husband and a sense of purity, as opposed to the Lady in Red ghost that is mostly attributed to a jilted lover or prostitute.

The White Lady ghost is often associated with an individual family line or regarded as a harbinger of death similar to a banshee. Legends of ghost ships have existed since the 18th century; most notable of these is the Flying Dutchman.

A place where ghosts are reported is described as haunted , and often seen as being inhabited by spirits of deceased who may have been former residents or were familiar with the property.

Supernatural activity inside homes is said to be mainly associated with violent or tragic events in the building's past such as murder, accidental death, or suicide—sometimes in the recent or ancient past.

However, not all hauntings are at a place of a violent death, or even on violent grounds. Many cultures and religions believe the essence of a being, such as the ' soul ', continues to exist.

Some religious views argue that the 'spirits' of those who have died have not 'passed over' and are trapped inside the property where their memories and energy are strong.

There are many references to ghosts in Mesopotamian religions — the religions of Sumer , Babylon , Assyria , and other early states in Mesopotamia.

Traces of these beliefs survive in the later Abrahamic religions that came to dominate the region.

They traveled to the netherworld, where they were assigned a position, and led an existence similar in some ways to that of the living. Relatives of the dead were expected to make offerings of food and drink to the dead to ease their conditions.

If they did not, the ghosts could inflict misfortune and illness on the living. Traditional healing practices ascribed a variety of illnesses to the action of ghosts, while others were caused by gods or demons.

There was widespread belief in ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture The Hebrew Bible contains few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with forbidden occult activities cf.

Deuteronomy The soul and spirit were believed to exist after death, with the ability to assist or harm the living, and the possibility of a second death.

Over a period of more than 2, years, Egyptian beliefs about the nature of the afterlife evolved constantly. Many of these beliefs were recorded in hieroglyph inscriptions, papyrus scrolls and tomb paintings.

The Egyptian Book of the Dead compiles some of the beliefs from different periods of ancient Egyptian history. Ghosts appeared in Homer 's Odyssey and Iliad , in which they were described as vanishing "as a vapor, gibbering and whining into the earth".

Homer's ghosts had little interaction with the world of the living. Periodically they were called upon to provide advice or prophecy, but they do not appear to be particularly feared.

Ghosts in the classical world often appeared in the form of vapor or smoke, but at other times they were described as being substantial, appearing as they had been at the time of death, complete with the wounds that killed them.

By the 5th century BC, classical Greek ghosts had become haunting, frightening creatures who could work to either good or evil purposes.

The spirit of the dead was believed to hover near the resting place of the corpse, and cemeteries were places the living avoided.

The dead were to be ritually mourned through public ceremony, sacrifice, and libations, or else they might return to haunt their families.

The ancient Greeks held annual feasts to honor and placate the spirits of the dead, to which the family ghosts were invited, and after which they were "firmly invited to leave until the same time next year.

The 5th-century BC play Oresteia includes an appearance of the ghost of Clytemnestra , one of the first ghosts to appear in a work of fiction.

The ancient Romans believed a ghost could be used to exact revenge on an enemy by scratching a curse on a piece of lead or pottery and placing it into a grave.

Plutarch , in the 1st century AD, described the haunting of the baths at Chaeronea by the ghost of a murdered man. The ghost's loud and frightful groans caused the people of the town to seal up the doors of the building.

Knowing that the house was supposedly haunted, Athenodorus intentionally set up his writing desk in the room where the apparition was said to appear and sat there writing until late at night when he was disturbed by a ghost bound in chains.

He followed the ghost outside where it indicated a spot on the ground. When Athenodorus later excavated the area, a shackled skeleton was unearthed.

The haunting ceased when the skeleton was given a proper reburial. Similarly, Jesus' followers at first believed he was a ghost spirit when they saw him walking on water.

One of the first persons to express disbelief in ghosts was Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd century AD. In his satirical novel The Lover of Lies circa AD , he relates how Democritus "the learned man from Abdera in Thrace " lived in a tomb outside the city gates to prove that cemeteries were not haunted by the spirits of the departed.

Lucian relates how he persisted in his disbelief despite practical jokes perpetrated by "some young men of Abdera" who dressed up in black robes with skull masks to frighten him.

In the 5th century AD, the Christian priest Constantius of Lyon recorded an instance of the recurring theme of the improperly buried dead who come back to haunt the living, and who can only cease their haunting when their bones have been discovered and properly reburied.

Ghosts reported in medieval Europe tended to fall into two categories: the souls of the dead, or demons. The souls of the dead returned for a specific purpose.

Demonic ghosts existed only to torment or tempt the living. The living could tell them apart by demanding their purpose in the name of Jesus Christ.

The soul of a dead person would divulge its mission, while a demonic ghost would be banished at the sound of the Holy Name.

Most ghosts were souls assigned to Purgatory , condemned for a specific period to atone for their transgressions in life. Their penance was generally related to their sin.

For example, the ghost of a man who had been abusive to his servants was condemned to tear off and swallow bits of his own tongue; the ghost of another man, who had neglected to leave his cloak to the poor, was condemned to wear the cloak, now "heavy as a church tower".

These ghosts appeared to the living to ask for prayers to end their suffering. Other dead souls returned to urge the living to confess their sins before their own deaths.

Medieval European ghosts were more substantial than ghosts described in the Victorian age , and there are accounts of ghosts being wrestled with and physically restrained until a priest could arrive to hear its confession.

Some were less solid, and could move through walls. Often they were described as paler and sadder versions of the person they had been while alive, and dressed in tattered gray rags.

The vast majority of reported sightings were male. There were some reported cases of ghostly armies, fighting battles at night in the forest, or in the remains of an Iron Age hillfort, as at Wandlebury , near Cambridge, England.

Living knights were sometimes challenged to single combat by phantom knights, which vanished when defeated.

From the medieval period an apparition of a ghost is recorded from , at the time of the Albigensian Crusade.

This series of "visits" lasted all of the summer. Through his cousin, who spoke for him, the boy allegedly held conversations with anyone who wished, until the local priest requested to speak to the boy directly, leading to an extended disquisition on theology.

The boy narrated the trauma of death and the unhappiness of his fellow souls in Purgatory , and reported that God was most pleased with the ongoing Crusade against the Cathar heretics, launched three years earlier.

The time of the Albigensian Crusade in southern France was marked by intense and prolonged warfare, this constant bloodshed and dislocation of populations being the context for these reported visits by the murdered boy.

Renaissance magic took a revived interest in the occult , including necromancy. In the era of the Reformation and Counter Reformation, there was frequently a backlash against unwholesome interest in the dark arts, typified by writers such as Thomas Erastus.

He cannot marry her because he is dead but her refusal would mean his damnation. This reflects a popular British belief that the dead haunted their lovers if they took up with a new love without some formal release.

Soon after, he gains a companion who aids him and, in the end, the hero's companion reveals that he is in fact the dead man.

Spiritualism is a monotheistic belief system or religion , postulating a belief in God , but with a distinguishing feature of belief that spirits of the dead residing in the spirit world can be contacted by " mediums ", who can then provide information about the afterlife.

Spiritualism developed in the United States and reached its peak growth in membership from the s to the s, especially in English-language countries.

The religion flourished for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, attaining cohesion by periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, and the missionary activities of accomplished mediums.

Most followers supported causes such as the abolition of slavery and women's suffrage. Spiritism has adherents in many countries throughout the world, including Spain, United States, Canada, [71] Japan, Germany, France, England, Argentina, Portugal, and especially Brazil, which has the largest proportion and greatest number of followers.

The physician John Ferriar wrote "An Essay Towards a Theory of Apparitions" in in which he argued that sightings of ghosts were the result of optical illusions.

David Turner, a retired physical chemist, suggested that ball lightning could cause inanimate objects to move erratically.

Joe Nickell of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry wrote that there was no credible scientific evidence that any location was inhabited by spirits of the dead.

Pareidolia , an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, is what some skeptics believe causes people to believe that they have 'seen ghosts'.

According to Nickell, peripheral vision can easily mislead, especially late at night when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds.

Nickell says that ghosts act the same way as "dreams, memories, and imaginings, because they too are mental creations.

They are evidence - not of another world, but of this real and natural one. Benjamin Radford from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and author of the book Investigating Ghosts: The Scientific Search for Spirits writes that "ghost hunting is the world's most popular paranormal pursuit" yet, to date ghost hunters can't agree on what a ghost is, or offer proof that they exist "it's all speculation and guesswork".

He writes that it would be "useful and important to distinguish between types of spirits and apparitions.

Until then it's merely a parlor game distracting amateur ghost hunters from the task at hand.

According to research in anomalistic psychology visions of ghosts may arise from hypnagogic hallucinations "waking dreams" experienced in the transitional states to and from sleep.

Some researchers, such as Michael Persinger of Laurentian University , Canada, have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields created, e.

Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills.

People who experience sleep paralysis often report seeing ghosts during their experiences. Neuroscientists Baland Jalal and V.

Ramachandran have recently proposed neurological theories for why people hallucinate ghosts during sleep paralysis.

Their theories emphasize the role of the parietal lobe and mirror neurons in triggering such ghostly hallucinations.

Similarly, Jesus' followers at first believe he is a ghost spirit when they see him walking on water.

Some Christian denominations [ which? Some ghosts are actually said to be demons in disguise, who the Church teaches, in accordance with I Timothy , that they "come to deceive people and draw them away from God and into bondage.

Furthermore, they teach that in accordance with Genesis , Ecclesiastes , there are only two components to a "soul", neither of which survives death, with each returning to its respective source.

Christadelphians and Jehovah's Witnesses reject the view of a living, conscious soul after death. Jewish mythology and folkloric traditions describe dybbuks , malicious possessing spirits believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person.

It supposedly leaves the host body once it has accomplished its goal, sometimes after being helped.

According to Islam, the souls of the deceased dwell in barzakh and while it is only a barrier in Quran , in Islamic tradition the world, especially cemeteries, are perforated with several gateways to the otherworld.

Since the just souls remain close to their tomb, some people try to communicate with them in order to gain hidden knowledge. Contact with the dead is not the same as contact with jinn , who alike could provide knowledge concealed from living human.

In contrast to traditional Islamic thought, Salafi scholars state that spirits of the dead are unable to return to or make any contact with the world of the living, [] and ghost sightings are attributed to the Salafi concept of jinn.

In Buddhism, there are a number of planes of existence into which a person can be reborn , one of which is the realm of hungry ghosts.

If the hungry ghosts are fed by non-relatives, they would not bother the community. For the Igbo people , a man is simultaneously a physical and spiritual entity.

However, it is his spirited dimension that is eternal. We have the Nipadua body , the Okra soul , Sunsum spirit , Ntoro character from father , Mogya character from mother.

Richard Rudgley [] hypothesises that Umm Nyolokh may contain DMT and certain online websites further theorise that giraffe liver might owe its putative psychoactivity to substances derived from psychoactive plants , such as Acacia spp.

The drink is said to cause hallucinations of giraffes, believed by the Humr to be the ghosts of giraffes.

Belief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased who may harm the living. This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger , the Romanian strigoi , the Serbian vampir , the Greek vrykolakas , etc.

In Scandinavian and Finnish tradition, ghosts appear in corporeal form, and their supernatural nature is given away by behavior rather than appearance.

In fact, in many stories they are first mistaken for the living. They may be mute, appear and disappear suddenly, or leave no footprints or other traces.

English folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations. Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century.

Interpretations of how bhoot s come into existence vary by region and community, but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on to transmigration , non-being, nirvana , or heaven or hell, depending on tradition.

This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.

In Central and Northern India, ojha or spirit guides play a central role. It is also believed that if someone calls one from behind, never turn back and see because the spirit may catch the human to make it a spirit.

Other types of spirits in Hindu mythology include Baital , an evil spirit who haunts cemeteries and takes demonic possession of corpses, and Pishacha , a type of flesh-eating demon.

There are many kinds of ghosts and similar supernatural entities that frequently come up in Bengali culture , its folklores and form an important part in Bengali peoples' socio-cultural beliefs and superstitions.

It is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth.

The word Pret from Sanskrit is also used in Bengali to mean ghost. In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances like murder, suicide or accident.

Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death.

Ghosts in Thailand are part of local folklore and have now become part of the popular culture of the country. Phraya Anuman Rajadhon was the first Thai scholar who seriously studied Thai folk beliefs and took notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thailand.

He established that, since such spirits were not represented in paintings or drawings, they were purely based on descriptions of popular orally transmitted traditional stories.

There is widespread belief in ghosts in Tibetan culture. Ghosts are explicitly recognized in the Tibetan Buddhist religion as they were in Indian Buddhism , [] occupying a distinct but overlapping world to the human one, and feature in many traditional legends.

When a human dies, after a period of uncertainty they may enter the ghost world. Ghosts may be killed with a ritual dagger or caught in a spirit trap and burnt, thus releasing them to be reborn.

Ghosts may also be exorcised, and an annual festival is held throughout Tibet for this purpose. Some say that Dorje Shugden , the ghost of a powerful 17th-century monk, is a deity, but the Dalai Lama asserts that he is an evil spirit, which has caused a split in the Tibetan exile community.

There are many Malay ghost myths , remnants of old animist beliefs that have been shaped by later Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim influences in the modern states of Indonesia , Malaysia , and Brunei.

Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Pontianak and Penanggalan are shared throughout the region. Ghosts are a popular theme in modern Malaysian and Indonesian films.

There are also many references to ghosts in Filipino culture , ranging from ancient legendary creatures such as the Manananggal and Tiyanak to more modern urban legends and horror films.

The beliefs, legends and stories are as diverse as the people of the Philippines. There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture , some of which persists today.

After death, a person's ghost normally traveled to the sky world or the underworld, but some could stay on earth.

In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often actively involved in the affairs of the living. Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines.

There are many references to ghosts in Chinese culture. Even Confucius said, "Respect ghosts and gods, but keep away from them.

The ghosts take many forms, depending on how the person died, and are often harmful. Many Chinese ghost beliefs have been accepted by neighboring cultures, notably Japan and southeast Asia.

Ghost beliefs are closely associated with traditional Chinese religion based on ancestor worship, many of which were incorporated in Taoism.

Later beliefs were influenced by Buddhism , and in turn influenced and created uniquely Chinese Buddhist beliefs. Many Chinese today believe it possible to contact the spirits of their ancestors through a medium, and that ancestors can help descendants if properly respected and rewarded.

The annual ghost festival is celebrated by Chinese around the world. On this day, ghosts and spirits , including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm.

Ghosts are described in classical Chinese texts as well as modern literature and films. A article in the China Post stated that nearly eighty-seven percent of Chinese office workers believe in ghosts, and some fifty-two percent of workers will wear hand art, necklaces, crosses, or even place a crystal ball on their desks to keep ghosts at bay, according to the poll.

Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife.

There is extensive and varied belief in ghosts in Mexican culture. The modern state of Mexico before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by diverse peoples such as the Maya and Aztec , and their beliefs have survived and evolved, combined with the beliefs of the Spanish colonists.

The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. Mexican literature and films include many stories of ghosts interacting with the living.

According to the Gallup Poll News Service, belief in haunted houses, ghosts, communication with the dead, and witches had an especially steep increase over the s.

Ghosts are prominent in story-telling of various nations. The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature.

While ghost stories are often explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales.

Ghosts often appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, and thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form.

Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer 's Odyssey , which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, [] and the Old Testament , in which the Witch of Endor summons the spirit of the prophet Samuel.

In Hamlet , it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius.

In English Renaissance theater , ghosts were often depicted in the garb of the living and even in armor, as with the ghost of Hamlet's father.

Armor, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity.

Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory , point out, "In fact, it is as laughter increasingly threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of 'spirit drapery'.

VORBESTELLUNG – SOFORTIGE ZAHLUNG ERFORDERLICH Vorbesteller erhalten diese digitalen Inhalte: – Digitaler Mini-Soundtrack von Ghost of. Am Donnerstag erscheint auf Netflix mit Ghost in the Shell: SAC_ eine weitere Umsetzung des Mangas. Den Fans gefällt der neue Look. Der neue Film Scarlett Johansson spielt Major – Kann das gutgehen? Ghost in the Shell (jap. 攻殻機動隊. Originaltitel, Ghost In The Shell. Genre, Action. Filmart, Spielfilm (Darsteller). Regie, Rupert Sanders. Darsteller, Takeshi Kitano,Scarlett Johansson,Pilou Asbæk.

From metacritic. Genre at it's best! Seen in Share this Rating Title: Ghost in the Shell 6. Use the HTML below.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Scarlett Johansson Batou Takeshi Kitano Ouelet Michael Pitt Togusa Danusia Samal Ladriya Lasarus Ratuere Ishikawa Yutaka Izumihara Saito Tawanda Manyimo Borma Peter Ferdinando Cutter Anamaria Marinca Dahlin Daniel Henshall Skinny Man Mana Hira Davis More About 'Ghost in the Shell' Take a look back at Ghost in the Shell star Scarlett Johansson 's career in photos and check out some of our favorite cinematic cyborgs.

Scarlett Johansson Through the Years. Better, Stronger, Faster: Cinematic Cyborgs. Learn more More Like This.

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Theatrical release poster. Adam Greenberg. Paramount Pictures [2]. Best Picture. Best Supporting Actress.

Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen. Best Film Editing. Best Original Score. American Cinema Editors Awards. Best Edited Feature Film.

American Comedy Awards. American Society of Cinematographers Awards. Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases.

British Academy Film Awards. Pareidolia , an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, is what some skeptics believe causes people to believe that they have 'seen ghosts'.

According to Nickell, peripheral vision can easily mislead, especially late at night when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds.

Nickell says that ghosts act the same way as "dreams, memories, and imaginings, because they too are mental creations. They are evidence - not of another world, but of this real and natural one.

Benjamin Radford from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and author of the book Investigating Ghosts: The Scientific Search for Spirits writes that "ghost hunting is the world's most popular paranormal pursuit" yet, to date ghost hunters can't agree on what a ghost is, or offer proof that they exist "it's all speculation and guesswork".

He writes that it would be "useful and important to distinguish between types of spirits and apparitions. Until then it's merely a parlor game distracting amateur ghost hunters from the task at hand.

According to research in anomalistic psychology visions of ghosts may arise from hypnagogic hallucinations "waking dreams" experienced in the transitional states to and from sleep.

Some researchers, such as Michael Persinger of Laurentian University , Canada, have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields created, e.

Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills.

People who experience sleep paralysis often report seeing ghosts during their experiences. Neuroscientists Baland Jalal and V.

Ramachandran have recently proposed neurological theories for why people hallucinate ghosts during sleep paralysis.

Their theories emphasize the role of the parietal lobe and mirror neurons in triggering such ghostly hallucinations. Similarly, Jesus' followers at first believe he is a ghost spirit when they see him walking on water.

Some Christian denominations [ which? Some ghosts are actually said to be demons in disguise, who the Church teaches, in accordance with I Timothy , that they "come to deceive people and draw them away from God and into bondage.

Furthermore, they teach that in accordance with Genesis , Ecclesiastes , there are only two components to a "soul", neither of which survives death, with each returning to its respective source.

Christadelphians and Jehovah's Witnesses reject the view of a living, conscious soul after death. Jewish mythology and folkloric traditions describe dybbuks , malicious possessing spirits believed to be the dislocated soul of a dead person.

It supposedly leaves the host body once it has accomplished its goal, sometimes after being helped.

According to Islam, the souls of the deceased dwell in barzakh and while it is only a barrier in Quran , in Islamic tradition the world, especially cemeteries, are perforated with several gateways to the otherworld.

Since the just souls remain close to their tomb, some people try to communicate with them in order to gain hidden knowledge.

Contact with the dead is not the same as contact with jinn , who alike could provide knowledge concealed from living human. In contrast to traditional Islamic thought, Salafi scholars state that spirits of the dead are unable to return to or make any contact with the world of the living, [] and ghost sightings are attributed to the Salafi concept of jinn.

In Buddhism, there are a number of planes of existence into which a person can be reborn , one of which is the realm of hungry ghosts.

If the hungry ghosts are fed by non-relatives, they would not bother the community. For the Igbo people , a man is simultaneously a physical and spiritual entity.

However, it is his spirited dimension that is eternal. We have the Nipadua body , the Okra soul , Sunsum spirit , Ntoro character from father , Mogya character from mother.

Richard Rudgley [] hypothesises that Umm Nyolokh may contain DMT and certain online websites further theorise that giraffe liver might owe its putative psychoactivity to substances derived from psychoactive plants , such as Acacia spp.

The drink is said to cause hallucinations of giraffes, believed by the Humr to be the ghosts of giraffes.

Belief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased who may harm the living.

This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger , the Romanian strigoi , the Serbian vampir , the Greek vrykolakas , etc.

In Scandinavian and Finnish tradition, ghosts appear in corporeal form, and their supernatural nature is given away by behavior rather than appearance.

In fact, in many stories they are first mistaken for the living. They may be mute, appear and disappear suddenly, or leave no footprints or other traces.

English folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations. Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century.

Interpretations of how bhoot s come into existence vary by region and community, but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on to transmigration , non-being, nirvana , or heaven or hell, depending on tradition.

This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.

In Central and Northern India, ojha or spirit guides play a central role. It is also believed that if someone calls one from behind, never turn back and see because the spirit may catch the human to make it a spirit.

Other types of spirits in Hindu mythology include Baital , an evil spirit who haunts cemeteries and takes demonic possession of corpses, and Pishacha , a type of flesh-eating demon.

There are many kinds of ghosts and similar supernatural entities that frequently come up in Bengali culture , its folklores and form an important part in Bengali peoples' socio-cultural beliefs and superstitions.

It is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The word Pret from Sanskrit is also used in Bengali to mean ghost.

In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances like murder, suicide or accident.

Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death.

Ghosts in Thailand are part of local folklore and have now become part of the popular culture of the country. Phraya Anuman Rajadhon was the first Thai scholar who seriously studied Thai folk beliefs and took notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thailand.

He established that, since such spirits were not represented in paintings or drawings, they were purely based on descriptions of popular orally transmitted traditional stories.

There is widespread belief in ghosts in Tibetan culture. Ghosts are explicitly recognized in the Tibetan Buddhist religion as they were in Indian Buddhism , [] occupying a distinct but overlapping world to the human one, and feature in many traditional legends.

When a human dies, after a period of uncertainty they may enter the ghost world. Ghosts may be killed with a ritual dagger or caught in a spirit trap and burnt, thus releasing them to be reborn.

Ghosts may also be exorcised, and an annual festival is held throughout Tibet for this purpose. Some say that Dorje Shugden , the ghost of a powerful 17th-century monk, is a deity, but the Dalai Lama asserts that he is an evil spirit, which has caused a split in the Tibetan exile community.

There are many Malay ghost myths , remnants of old animist beliefs that have been shaped by later Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim influences in the modern states of Indonesia , Malaysia , and Brunei.

Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Pontianak and Penanggalan are shared throughout the region.

Ghosts are a popular theme in modern Malaysian and Indonesian films. There are also many references to ghosts in Filipino culture , ranging from ancient legendary creatures such as the Manananggal and Tiyanak to more modern urban legends and horror films.

The beliefs, legends and stories are as diverse as the people of the Philippines. There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture , some of which persists today.

After death, a person's ghost normally traveled to the sky world or the underworld, but some could stay on earth. In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often actively involved in the affairs of the living.

Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines.

There are many references to ghosts in Chinese culture. Even Confucius said, "Respect ghosts and gods, but keep away from them.

The ghosts take many forms, depending on how the person died, and are often harmful. Many Chinese ghost beliefs have been accepted by neighboring cultures, notably Japan and southeast Asia.

Ghost beliefs are closely associated with traditional Chinese religion based on ancestor worship, many of which were incorporated in Taoism.

Later beliefs were influenced by Buddhism , and in turn influenced and created uniquely Chinese Buddhist beliefs.

Many Chinese today believe it possible to contact the spirits of their ancestors through a medium, and that ancestors can help descendants if properly respected and rewarded.

The annual ghost festival is celebrated by Chinese around the world. On this day, ghosts and spirits , including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm.

Ghosts are described in classical Chinese texts as well as modern literature and films. A article in the China Post stated that nearly eighty-seven percent of Chinese office workers believe in ghosts, and some fifty-two percent of workers will wear hand art, necklaces, crosses, or even place a crystal ball on their desks to keep ghosts at bay, according to the poll.

Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife. There is extensive and varied belief in ghosts in Mexican culture.

The modern state of Mexico before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by diverse peoples such as the Maya and Aztec , and their beliefs have survived and evolved, combined with the beliefs of the Spanish colonists.

The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. Mexican literature and films include many stories of ghosts interacting with the living.

According to the Gallup Poll News Service, belief in haunted houses, ghosts, communication with the dead, and witches had an especially steep increase over the s.

Ghosts are prominent in story-telling of various nations. The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature.

While ghost stories are often explicitly meant to be scary, they have been written to serve all sorts of purposes, from comedy to morality tales.

Ghosts often appear in the narrative as sentinels or prophets of things to come. Belief in ghosts is found in all cultures around the world, and thus ghost stories may be passed down orally or in written form.

Spirits of the dead appear in literature as early as Homer 's Odyssey , which features a journey to the underworld and the hero encountering the ghosts of the dead, [] and the Old Testament , in which the Witch of Endor summons the spirit of the prophet Samuel.

In Hamlet , it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius.

In English Renaissance theater , ghosts were often depicted in the garb of the living and even in armor, as with the ghost of Hamlet's father.

Armor, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory , point out, "In fact, it is as laughter increasingly threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of 'spirit drapery'.

The "classic" ghost story arose during the Victorian period, and included authors such as M. Classic ghost stories were influenced by the gothic fiction tradition, and contain elements of folklore and psychology.

Famous literary apparitions from this period are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol , in which Ebenezer Scrooge is helped to see the error of his ways by the ghost of his former colleague Jacob Marley , and the ghosts of Christmas Past, Christmas Present, and Christmas Yet to Come.

Professional parapsychologists and "ghosts hunters", such as Harry Price , active in the s and s, and Peter Underwood , active in the s and s, published accounts of their experiences with ostensibly true ghost stories such as Price's The Most Haunted House in England , and Underwood's Ghosts of Borley both recounting experiences at Borley Rectory.

The writer Frank Edwards delved into ghost stories in his books of his, like Stranger than Science.

Children's benevolent ghost stories became popular, such as Casper the Friendly Ghost , created in the s and appearing in comics, animated cartoons , and eventually a feature film.

With the advent of motion pictures and television, screen depictions of ghosts became common, and spanned a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions.

Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, although that of The Haunting of Hill House to The Haunting in is an exception.

Sentimental depictions during this period were more popular in cinema than horror, and include the film The Ghost and Mrs. Muir , which was later adapted to television with a successful —70 TV series.

The s saw screen depictions of ghosts diverge into distinct genres of the romantic and horror. A common theme in the romantic genre from this period is the ghost as a benign guide or messenger, often with unfinished business, such as 's Field of Dreams , the film Ghost , and the comedy Heart and Souls.

Popularised in such films as the comedy Ghostbusters , ghost hunting became a hobby for many who formed ghost hunting societies to explore reportedly haunted places.

It is also represented in children's television by such programs as The Ghost Hunter and Ghost Trackers. Ghost hunting also gave rise to multiple guidebooks to haunted locations, and ghost hunting "how-to" manuals.

The s saw a return to classic "gothic" ghosts, whose dangers were more psychological than physical. Asian cinema has also produced horror films about ghosts, such as the Japanese film Ringu remade in the US as The Ring in , and the Pang brothers' film The Eye.

In fictional television programming, ghosts have been explored in series such as Supernatural , Ghost Whisperer , and Medium. In animated fictional television programming, ghosts have served as the central element in series such as Casper the Friendly Ghost , Danny Phantom , and Scooby-Doo.

Various other television shows have depicted ghosts as well. Nietzsche argued that people generally wear prudent masks in company, but that an alternative strategy for social interaction is to present oneself as an absence, as a social ghost — "One reaches out for us but gets no hold of us" [] — a sentiment later echoed if in a less positive way by Carl Jung.

Nick Harkaway has considered that all people carry a host of ghosts in their heads in the form of impressions of past acquaintances — ghosts who represent mental maps of other people in the world and serve as philosophical reference points.

Object relations theory sees human personalities as formed by splitting off aspects of the person that he or she deems incompatible, whereupon the person may be haunted in later life by such ghosts of his or her alternate selves.

The sense of ghosts as invisible, mysterious entities is invoked in several terms that use the word metaphorically, such as ghostwriter a writer who pens texts credited to another person without revealing the ghostwriter's role as an author ; ghost singer a vocalist who records songs whose vocals are credited to another person ; and "ghosting" a date when a person breaks off contact with a former romantic partner and disappears.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. For other uses, see Ghost disambiguation.

For other uses, see Ghostly disambiguation. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Further information: Spirit , Soul , wikt:anima , Genius mythology , and Geist.

Further information: Animism , Ancestor worship , Origin of religion , and Anthropology of religion.

Main article: Fear of ghosts. See also: Haunted house. Main article: Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions. Main article: Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture.

Further information: Shade mythology and Magic in the Greco-Roman world.

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